Experiences from Africa

Business Action Against Corruption Report

The Report on Benchmarking Anti-Corruption Initiatives in Africa provides a good overview of activities and requirements to combat corruption in Africa and focuses on 16 different case studies. These refer to actions for the effective implementation of anti-corruption measures, monitoring and evaluation, an enabling environment for non-state actors, law enforcement, and national integrity systems. It also includes a description of key initiatives relevant to anti-corruption measures in Africa.
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UN Global Compact Regional Learning Forum Case Studies

The following 5 case studies describe various approaches on fighting corruption made by different companies or company conglomerates. Each of them is structured according to the points “Vision”, ‘Leadership”, Empowerment”, “Policies and Strategies”, “Resources”, “Innovation and Process”, “Impact on People, “Impact on the Value Chain”, “Impact on Society” and “Reporting and Communication on Progress”.

Instituting a Whistleblower Policy in the Global Fund to Fight Aids,
Tuberculosis and Malaria

(Author: Willem Punt, Ethics Institute of South Africa)

This case follows the ethical activities of the Global Fund, a non-profit public benefit organisation acting as an international donor fund manager. The organisation has significant influence in administering vast amounts of donor funds. This influence is used by the Global Fund to also promote responsible conduct among its own employees, grant recipients and suppliers. One mechanism for achieving this positive role modeling is the development of a whistleblowing policy. The case study also highlights general areas of improvement to implement respective policy guidelines.
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Massmart LTD – A Moral Community
(Author: Willem Punt, Ethics Institute of South Africa)

Rather than a legal vehicle in pursuing profit, the vision of the Massmart Group is one of a moral entity pursuing sustainable value creation. The case study describes the steps the Massmart Group took to realise this vision. These steps comprise independent verification, containing an Ethics Perceptions Survey and a comprehensive ethics review – the Massmart Ethics Indicator -  as well as the formulation of eight stakeholder engagement principles that are applicable to everyone in the chain of business of the Massmart Group. 14 400 of approximately 15 500 employees received scenario-based training. The Group appointed Ethics Officers in all divisions and internal ethics audits were conducted at regular intervals. It also established an anonymous Massmart Ethics Line, run by an independent private company.
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Enterprise Governance within the Nedbank Group
(Author: Willem Punt, Ethics Institute of South Africa)

The Nedbank Group’s technical reorganisation of the enterprise was complemented by a formal programme to build trust among employees, clients and investors. The group developed a “Deep Green” vision and became Southern Africa’s most highly rated and respected bank by its staff, clients, shareholders, regulators and communities. The vision is underpinned by a set of values i.e. integrity, respect, accountability, pushing beyond boundaries and is people-centered. These values work as an evaluative filter for performance. The group also created the Nedbank Enterprise Governance and Compliance Division, and its Ethics Officer among others, established a Code of Ethics. Each employee is required to make a personal commitment to comply with the code, and to report respective violations. The group regularly conducts staff surveys, measuring among others perceptions of ethical conduct. 
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Creating a Culture Intolerant of Fraud and Corruption in
Total South Africa (Pty) Limited

(Author: Willem Punt, Ethics Institute of South Africa)

Dealing in an increasingly scarce resource, often extracted from parts of the world characterised by political unrest and poor governance, Total South Africa (TSA), a subsidiary of the Paris-based Total Société Anonyme (TotalSA), faces legal, regulatory, financial, reputational and moral imperatives. A 2005 review of the TotalSA group’s commitment to implementing a Code of Ethics indicated a number of areas of concern for TSA. The case study describes how a complimentary code, addressing issues unique to TSA, was developed. Policy gaps were identified and linked to organisational values, ensuring that the code didn’t just remain an isolated policy. Employees, dealers, suppliers, and contractors are encouraged to exercise personal leadership in their own spheres of influence and to demonstrate this with an annual recommitment to the TSA Code of Ethics.
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South Africa Revenue Service - The Creation of a SARS Ethics
and Governance Office

(Author: Willem Punt, Ethics Institute of South Africa)

With a registered tax base exceeding 13 million in 2006, the expanding client pool of SARS reflects the significant growth in the South African economy over the last decade.  Chronic corruption and malpractice, poor skills and working conditions, and a lack of adequate internal controls led to the physical reorganisation of assets and resources, complimented with a change in organisational culture. As the first of the South African public services, SARS established an Ethics and Governance Office responsible for corruption prevention and the promotion of responsible business conduct. This office provides telephonic as well as email assistance and also maintains a web page that offers general guidance. SARS’ about 15 000 employees are trained in ethics policies and strategies.
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The South African National Anti-Corruption Forum

South Africa’s approach to fighting corruption is unique in terms of international practice in that government, business and civil society are collectively engaged with the problem. From the first formal dialogue held by government, corruption has been acknowledged as a societal problem which needs to be addressed collaboratively by all sectors of society. The National Anti-Corruption Forum (NACF) was launched in 2001. It became clear within a very short period of time however, that coordination and formal structures for collaboration would have to be improved if the forum was going to justify its existence. Business and civil society in particular had to find ways of coordinating their input and activities, and the forum itself had to streamline its structure to speed up decision-making and enable a focus on tangible projects. Challenges of the endeavour and solutions to successfully tackle these difficulties are highlighted in this case study.
View case study document by authors Odette Ramsingh & Kris Dobie

Malawi Business Action Against Corruption

This document describes how a broad-based leaders’ coalition was established through multi-stakeholder negotiation and collective business action, with the focus on a systematic and concerted attack on Malawi’s corruption problem. A cross-societal coalition involving government, private business, civil society, donor agencies and the media, launched Business Action Against Corruption to tackle the problem and implement the 10th Principle of the UN Global Compact in Malawi. A Business Code of Conduct was established and participants were surveyed about their views on the progress of the initiative and developments in implementation.  
View case study document by authors Oonagh Fitzgerald & James Ngombe