Indices & Evaluation
The following section deals with the measurement and evaluation of corrupt practices and perceptions thereof and is focussed on the work of Transparency International and the Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE).
Transparency International Indices
Global Corruption Barometer
The Transparency International (TI) 2009 Global Corruption Barometer presents the main findings of a public opinion survey that explores the general public’s views of corruption, as well as experiences of bribery around the world. It assesses the extent to which key institutions and public services are perceived to be corrupt, measures citizens’ views on government efforts to fight corruption, and since 2009, includes searching questions about levels of state capture and people’s willingness to pay a premium for clean corporate behaviour.
Now in its 6th edition, the Barometer also aims to provide information on trends in public perceptions of corruption. In the 2009 edition, 73,132 people were interviewed in 69 countries and territories between October 2008 and February 2009.
The Barometer is designed to complement the expert opinions on public sector corruption provided by TI’s Corruption Perceptions Index and senior business executives’ views on international bribery reflected in TI’s Bribe Payers Index – which is dealth with in the next two paragraphs.
The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) provides an overview on how the degree of public sector corruption in countries or territories is perceived by business people and country analysts. The respective CPI Score indicates the perceived corruption for 180 countries, and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt).
Bribe Payers Index
The Bribe Payers Index gives a ranking for 22 of the world’s most economically influential countries according to the likelihood that their firms would indulge in bribery abroad. It looks in detail at the sources of corruption in the international marketplace, both in terms of where the bribes are paid and by which businesses. Above all, the Bribe Payers Survey illustrates how the supply of corruption is viewed by a global selection of senior business executives, who understand the markets and market pressures in their own countries.
Measuring & Monitoring Corruption: Challenges & Possibilities
This article was authored by Kris Dobie of the Center for Business and Professional Ethics at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. It discusses the challenges of measuring, and gives an overview on current mechanisms like Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index and Global Corruption Barometer. It further mentions the approach of the “Global Integrity” organisation. The document gives a critical view of methodologies and the validity of the results of these approaches. In addition it proposes a way of developing more valid instruments to monitor the private sector and suggests what a respective survey of the business community should include.
Evaluation of Anti-Corruption Programmes
This paper discusses the development and the main elements underlying the CIPE’s anti-corruption programs and more than 20 projects. The completed projects were reviewed and evaluated for their impact. CIPE developed five functional anti-corruption criteria — in addition to its existing overall project evaluation criteria — to assess the impact of its anti-corruption programs. The purpose of these criteria is to define a sustainable strategy, complete with indicators and action step measurements that will measure transparency and accountability of government and business employees, with the goal of supporting the growth of market-oriented democracy. An additional goal is to undercut corruption from impeding the development of markets, discouraging investment, increasing the costs of doing business, and stalling overall democracy-building efforts. The criteria can be useful for the evaluation of other anti-corruption projects.